A Timeline of Nanotechnology

A Timeline of Nanotechnology

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A Timeline of Nanotechnology

A Timeline of Nanotechnology: 1959-2016. Select to enlarge Infographic.

1959

Richard Feynman, from California Institute of Technology, gave the first lecture called, “There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom” on technology and engineering at the atomic scale at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech

  • National Nanotechnology Initiative. (2014). Nanotechnology Timeline. Retrieved from http://www.nano.gov/timeline (accessed December 8, 2016)

1974

Tokyo Science University professor coined the term nanotechnology to describe precision machining of materials to within atomic-scale dimensional tolerances.

1981

Researchers at IBM’s Zurich lab invented the scanning tunneling microscope. This allowed scientists to identify spatial images of individual atoms for the first time.

1985

Researchers at Rice University discovered the Buckminsterfullerene (C60) or The buckyball. Buckyball is a molecule resembling a soccer ball in shape and composed entirely of carbon like graphite and diamond.

1989

Researchers at IBM's Almaden Research Center manipulated 35 individual xenon atoms to spell out the IBM logo. This demonstration of the ability to precisely manipulate atoms ushered in the applied use of nanotechnology.

1991

Researchers at NEC discovered the carbon nanotube. CNTs’ properties include high- strength, electrical and thermal conductivity.

1995

President Clinton launched the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) to coordinate federal Research & Development efforts and promote U.S. competitiveness in nanotechnology.

Nanotechnology Concept. (Image courtesy of Adobe Stock)

Nanotechnology Concept. (Image courtesy of Adobe Stock).

2000

President Clinton launched the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) to coordinate federal Research & Development efforts and promote U.S. competitiveness in nanotechnology.

2001

President Clinton launched the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) to coordinate federal Research & Development efforts and promote U.S. competitiveness in nanotechnology.

2002

Sean Howard warns of possible “devastation caused - accidentally, or by terrorists, or in open conflict - by artificial atomic and molecular structures capable of destroying environments and life forms from within.”

2004

Graphene is isolated and characterized by researchers at the University of Manchester. Graphene’s surface-to-volume ratio, optical properties and electrical conductivity make it a unique solution for sensor functions. 

  • Novoselov, K. S., Geim, A. K., Morozov, S. V., Jiang, D., Zhang, Y., Dubonos, S. V., Grigorieva, I. V., & Frisov, A. A. (2004). Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films. Science, 306(5696), 666-669. doi:10.1126/science.1102896
  • Graphene-info. (2009). What is a sensor? Retrieved from http://www.graphene-info.com/graphene-sensors (accessed December 8, 2016)

2006

Fabrication of silicon nanowire devices for ultrasensitive, label-free, real-time detection of biological and chemical species.

  • Patolsky, F., Zheng, G., & Lieber, C. M. (2006). Fabrication of silicon nanowire devices for ultrasensitive, label-free, real-time detection of biological and chemical species. Nature Protocols, 1(4), 1711-1724. doi:10.1038/nprot.2006.227 Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm t.nih.gov/pubmed/17487154 (accessed December 8, 2016)

2006

Prediction that the future of weaponry will be built ground-up from the microscale, and not the top down approach used to date. Nanotechnology weapons of mass destruction will likely be developed by a resource/science-rich nation, as the requirement to develop such weapons would exceed the capabilities of smaller nations. Furthermore, development of a novel nanotech WMD will likely remain a closely guarded secret by any state developing such a weapon, as revealing such a weapon would result in a loss of asymmetrical advantage.

2006

Chemical vapor detection using single-walled carbon nanotubes.

2007

A gold nanoparticle-based chronocoulometric DNA sensor for amplified detection of DNA.

  • Zhang, J., Song, S., Wang, L., Pan, D., & Fan, C. (2007). A gold nanoparticle-based chronocoulometric DNA sensor for amplified detection of DNA. Nature Protocols, 2(11), 2888-2895. doi:10.1038/nprot.2007.419 Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18007624 (accessed December 8, 2016)

2009

Radiation Detectable and Protective Articles Patent granted to Radiation Shield Technologies. RST offers a protective material made from nanopolymeric compounds that protects against chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear incidents with flame protection. The protective suite has certified fabric for first responders to CBRN or terrorist incidents. The suit is made of liquid metal that is lightweight, flexible and foldable and has been deployed worldwide by NATO.

2016

The Defense Treaty Reduction Agency and scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have developed a flexible, highly breathable material with carbon nanotubes with the ability to protect against viruses, bacteria and even small chemical agents. The fabric can block sulfur mustard agents, GD, VX never agents, toxins and biological spores. The membrane is expected to act like living skin and the fabric will exfoliate as a reaction to contact with chemical agents. The uniform could be deployed in the field in less than 10 years.

2016

Graphene nanodevices utilized for DNA sequencing.

  • Heerema, S. J., & Dekker, C. (2016). Graphene nanodevices for DNA sequencing. Nature Nanotechnology, 11(2), 127-136. doi:10.1038/nnano.2015.307

 

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