Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning for Defense Applications
This State of the Art Report focuses on applications of Artificial Inteligence (AI) that are relevant to DoD and other governmental agencies that share similar goals, such as the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the Intelligence Community. HDIAC collaborated with subject matter experts to obtain interpretations on relevant applications of AI to DoD and other agencies that could similarly incorporate AI into their operations. Discussions narrowed on relevant applications that have been in use for the past three years as well as advances that could become commercialized within the next 18–24 months. Given the vast amount of information, this report is not all-inclusive and is only a survey of prominent developments.
Recent advances in the field demonstrate new AI capabilities, such as sight, speech, and even moral/ethical reasoning [5-7]. These advances all show a common theme that machines are able to learn, adapting or amending their predetermined programming based on new input. The ability for machines to learn can be incorporated into weaponry and other applications used within DoD to support DoD strategy. AI is redefining the way wars are fought and won, as has been the case with many emerging technologies throughout history.
Although AI is often thought of as a part of computer science and typically viewed from a cyber perspective, applications of AI are relevant to all eight HDIAC focus areas. This report covers applications to Alternative Energy; Biometrics; Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Defense; Critical Infrastructure Protection; Cultural Studies; Homeland Defense and Security; Medicine; and Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). In some cases, the discussions group together areas that either overlap well or where information on AI applications is thin, and it made more sense to integrate relevant areas in order to provide a more robust perspective.
Critical Infrastructure Resilience
Critical infrastructure is composed of assets necessary to the U.S. government, military, individuals, and private industry. The 16 U.S. critical infrastructure sectors are chemical; commercial facilities; communications; critical manufacturing; dams; defense industrial base; emergency services; energy; financial services; food and agriculture; government facilities; healthcare and public health; information technology; nuclear reactors, materials, and waste; transportation systems; and water and wastewater systems. Disturbances to critical infrastructure through events such as natural disasters and terrorist actions threaten the U.S. economy, national security, and citizens’ quality of life.
This State of the Art Report (SOAR) focuses on the concept of critical infrastructure resilience. In 2013, the White House issued Presidential Policy Directive 21 for Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience to strengthen critical infrastructure. Resilience provides critical infrastructure an enhanced ability to mitigate the detrimental effects of adverse events. Resilience can be achieved through many avenues. This report highlights research, technology, and concepts that can be applied to support critical infrastructure resilience.
Report contributors are Homeland Defense & Security Information Analysis Center (HDIAC) subject matter experts with training and experience from a wide array of fields, including chemical, civil, computer and electrical engineering; geography; urban and community planning; disaster relief; emergency management; public health; and alternative energy. The topics discussed in this report include investment planning, computational models, smart grid, electricity pricing, natural nanomaterials, and community resilience. These concepts can be applied to improve critical infrastructure resilience across several HDIAC focus areas, including Alternative Energy, CBRN Defense, Critical Infrastructure Protection, Homeland Defense and Security, and Weapons of Mass Destruction.
PTSD: Applications & Future Directions in Behavioral Medicine & Clinical Neuroscience
Global conflict and political instability have increased our nation’s military operations and deployments. Missions occur more frequently, in unpredictable environments, resulting in less time for soldiers to recover mentally and physically. Many active duty service members return from combat with symptoms related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Although research in these areas is on-going, accurate reporting and assessment and effective interventions are lacking. Understanding the progression of PTSD, the neural mechanisms involved, and the compounding impact of mTBI and other comorbidities is imperative. Increased knowledge will enable the military to improve in first-line interventions, including predictive and resilience training.
This State of the Art Report (SOAR) presents recent research in behavioral medicine and clinical neuroscience as it relates to PTSD, which often occurs with mTBI and other comorbidities. Current gaps in knowledge and treatment ineffectiveness underscore the need for the military to more specifically and comprehensively address military-related PTSD and mTBI in active duty soldiers and veterans. Of particular interest are new scientific perspectives driving research and shifting paradigms; innovative technologies for delivering interventions; and emerging research in predictive and resilience training.